Remember all the usual industry suspects who predicted the end of Isadore Hall’s career. Hall had so tainted himself by his preoccupation with the adult industry, and had ruined his “legacy” with his loosing bills against the industry. Well what do you know, they were all wrong again. Looks like the people of California gave Assemblyman Hall a promotion. It’s now State Senator Hall, after a recent special election to fill a vacant seat. Congradulations Mr. Hall!
Read about it here.
Today is gonna be a Friday Fun Post. I have been scanning some old slides for a friend of mine and was fascinated with some of them, is it just me or were the girl prettier then? All photos compliments of Dr X and EMMReport
Shauna Grant (I think)
Jenna Jameson (Yes thats really her)
Mike South and Midori
Mike South and Sana Fey
Mike South and Cori love
Mike South Cori Love and ?
Mike South and Felicia Fox (aka Fifi)
The Legendary Aunt Peg (No relation to Uncle peg)
Hyapatia Lee (I think)
A few people have wondered this and I dont mind sharing it. As a kid I remember the nuclear drills in school, I grew up in a rural area as most of my readers know. I hunted, I fished at a VERY early age. It was not lost on me why, when our drills happened and we had to sit against concrete walls with our heads between our legs and our arms over our heads. I may not have understood the breadth and depth of a nuclear attack but I was familiar enough with death to know what I was doing and why.
As I got older we learned about Cuba and the revolution and how “The Other Guy Blinked” referring of course to Nikita Khrushchev in the stand off with President Kennedy over ballistic missiles in Cuba. By then I understood what a nuclear bomb was and how close we actually came to experiencing one first hand.
At the time it was hailed as a great victory for President Kennedy but as learned more over the years I saw it for what it was…..a great failure. It should never ever have gotten that far and had just a smidgen of diplomacy been exercised by the US Government, it wouldn’t have.
Am I oversimplifying it some, ya probably but in a nutshell hindsight backs me up.
Was Fidel Castro a brutal Dictator with human rights violations under his belt, probably but no more so than many others we have propped up over the years and the brutal dictator part can certainly be argued.
It does seem to be that there is a very large age gap that defines the feelings of this though, the older you are, the less likely you will support ending the embargo, that goes particularly true for families of Cuban exiles that had land confiscated and such.
The younger you are the more likely you are to support normalized relations, many say that is because you didn’t live through it.
One thing always stuck in my craw though. On the one hand you tell me I am a free man, and I have a right to come and go as I please. On the other you tell me except to Cuba. Well which is it? Because it sure as fuck isn’t both.
In the final analysis the economic embargo did little more than to strengthen Castro and weaken the very people we claimed we wanted to help, it failed, its time to move on….now if only we could admit that about the war on drugs.
If you follow the news you know that just an hour or so ago President Obama announced his intentions to normalize relations with Cuba. before we go any further on that topic there are some things You probably don’t know about Our neighbor to the south. I highly recommend that if you are interested you watch the Documentary about Castro by PBS
One thing you will learn is what you didn’t learn in school. At the time of the Cuban Revolution a middle class was almost non existent, quality healthcare and education were accessible only by the wealthy. Sound familiar? it should. You may have known that though but did you know that 75% of Cuban land was owned by American Companies? These companies were exploiting The Cuban population and as any good Republican will tell you….You can only exploit people who allow you to exploit them.
Well Fidel Castro mobilized the large Cuban underclass and said you wont exploit us any longer and the people revolted and won.
What many Americans do not know is that at the time Americans by and large saw Fidel Castro as a hero. the American press in particular. In 1959 after winning the revolution he visited New York City where he was generally treated like a rock star.
Fidel Castro visits New York, Some of the crowd, estimated at 35,000, wait behind police barricades at Central Park for glimpse of their hero. Some 1,000 cops were on hand to keep order. (Photo By: Phil Greitzer/NY Daily News via Getty Images)
But while the press may have loved him the government didn’t. After the revolution the first visit he made was to the United States, in an effort to thwart rumors that he was “communist” and to normalize relations with his closest neighbor.
The government saw him as a threat, particularly his intentions to nationalize property owned by American Corporations and President Eisenhower snubbed him when he visited. Subsequent attempts to mend relations crumbled particularly under President Kennedy, who on at least one occasion attempted to have Castro assassinated and also launched the ill fated Bay of Pigs invasion in an attempt to overthrow Castros’ rule. Castro, left with no other options opened relations with the USSR. The Us retaliated with trade embargoes, Cuba retaliated by expelling American Companies and here we are 50 years later with an ineffective trade embargo that does little more than harm both countries in my opinion.
Dont get me wrong here, there is reasonable evidence that Castro has some pretty serious human rights violations under his belt, but then you could say the same about George H W Bush as well.
In the end President Obama made the right move, a move that should have been made long ago. The trade sanctions clearly did not work, it is time to move on. If you want freedom to take root you cant force it on people. you must root it in the examples you set forth in policy. One could argue that most Cubans under Castro had more freedom than they had under Battista, but the point is moot. The best way to better relation is a better understanding of each other and that comes from contact with other peoples.
What will be next for Cuba? Will it become an island vacation paradise or another Haiti? Time will tell.
The best analysis I have seen of this was written by BT, one of the readers here, Thank You BT, Well done!
The law in question was passed in LA County. The court decision as it is doesn’t apply outside LA County – it simply finds that the law as passed in LA County is constitutional. So, if someone wants to shoot condomless sex in LA County, technically its a violation of the law that was passed. Calling it art versus porn doesn’t change anything – the First Amendment does not make a distinction between art and speech – it doesn’t define art. That’s because one man’s art, one man’s expression, is another man’s rubbish. Vivid, Kayden, and the dude argued that what they are doing is artistic expression – that its art. The court ruled that its constitutional to say that you can’t do that without a condom – at least if its for public consumption.
I’m under no illusion that the County of Los Angeles is going to set up porn police and start cracking down. Enforcement is a whole different issue.
Now, here’s why porn has to worry about the ruling. While it simply rules on a law passed in LA County, Las Vegas, the state of Nevada, Phoenix, or the state of Arizona – heck, the state of California – could now pass similar laws, and use the 9th circuit’s ruling as justification. Again, I’m not suggesting that these other jurisdictions care or will do anything; only that as a result of the 9th circuit ruling (all those places are covered by the 9th circuit) that they could.
Art doesn’t matter – there is no First Amendment exception for “art” because no one knows what art is and the court isn’t going to define it.
I reached out to the parties involved and got a response from Shy Love on the matter. According to Shy as far as she knows there is no counter suit yet because nobody Involved has been served as yet. She did say that she welcomes any such suit but would appreciate it if someone would serve her or her lawyer. Other than that Shy had no comment on the matter until such time as she has been served and has read the counter suit.
It does seem odd to me that Mark and his attorney Karen Tynan would give all of this to the lapdog sites prior to service of the suit. An attorney in this area of law that I contacted said “That is generally a poor move unless the goal is to simply attempt to try it in the court of public opinion, when you know your counter suit is weak.”
Time will tell….
Sometimes my reader comments are so well done that I think they deserve a wider audience, whether someone agrees with me or not isn’t relevant if its written with thought and with honesty it’s worthy of a promotion…such is the case with this one from Monica Foster. Thank You Monica.
First off Merry Christmas to Mike South’s readers – those both attached to the porn industry and unattached.
I think it’s great Mike that you re-posted Shelley Lubben’s outreach announcement to entertainers in the Los Angeles porn industry. As you stated, there needs to be a place for those who come to realize that a career in the pornographic system isn’t what they initially thought it was.
To ‘Removed Account’ – what’s wrong with being told that you need to find a regular minimum wage job? Yes, that’s a tough pill to swallow and a hard truth to come to terms with, but there’s nothing wrong with being told that. If anything, it provides an awakening as to that there are no shortcuts in life without consequence. Unfortunately the current Los Angeles porn industry fails to properly outline to new performers (STILL) as to the true magnitude of how a career in porn can alter your life (it opens your life to potential deadly disease, a form of PTSD which hasn’t been thoroughly defined, negative opinion of the type of person you are from mainstream society, stalkers, etc).
It’s taken me a while, but I’ve settled into a regular 5 day a week job and I’m still technically a part time “porn industry professional” as a live webcam model and blogger. I’m happy and part of my happiness I have to attribute to Shelley Lubben.
NOTHING is wrong with receiving a 99 cent store box of trinkets. It’s ENCOURAGING, and ENCOURAGEMENT is PRICELESS (just as a woman’s being, soul and sexuality is). Some people completely unattached to porn don’t even get that for Christmas…
I don’t like the way certain commenters here have stated Shelley Lubben in a liar (she’s not – she’s opinionated and has a certain perspective base on EXPERIENCE) and that she doesn’t help. She DOES help – and I feel her help is distributed on a sliding scale – which is something I’ve noticed her website now openly reflects.
Some women who turn to her DO need a “handout” and Shelley DOES provide that. Sometimes they’re grateful – other times they are not and take another path till they find what they believe they need. In regards to me, I feel in hindsight that Shelley provided EXACTLY what I needed – a reintroduction to Jesus Christ AND belief in MYSELF.
Shelley invited me to an LA City Council meeting years ago when I first made contact with her and that was the best thing she could have done. She took the time to encourage me to share my views with LA politicians as to why performer safety legislation (condom mandates) needed to be written into law. On my own, I never would have thought of addressing (nor would I have had the confidence to speak on) such an issue. Considering the events which have transpired over the past year, I’m very grateful that Shelley provided me with an introduction to the issue, which has been a vital part of the foundation that has shaped my opinions on the matter.
Another thing Shelley has done inadvertently is provide evidence as to how certain individuals associated / affiliated with the Free Speech Coalition will go to extreme lengths to intimidate and discredit individuals with opposing views to their agenda. Shelley has been extensively stalked by Whiteacre and his associates (as have I and others who oppose the FSC’s mantra). Shelley has racked up a treasure trove of ‘good karma points’ from my perspective for handling the situation with the grace and dignity which she has. I’d imagine the psychological attacks on her hard work to have been extremely stressful (and may have even pulled on her self esteem, sense of self worth and faith), but she has persevered with class.
Though Shelley is “anti-porn” officially, from my perspective she isn’t because she has given the industry the benefit of the doubt and a solid chance. Shelley has SOCIALIZED with porn professionals. She’s put her reputation and LIFE (and her family’s lives and safety even) on the line to follow the teachings of Jesus Christ and REACH OUT to the WICKED. People who are TRULY anti-porn would not EVER stand in the SAME ROOM with porn professionals. That’s the reality. SHELLEY DID NOT HAVE TO BE AS KIND as she’s been – but she CHOSE to BE (and continues to do so), and what did she get? A huge SLAP IN THE FACE from those resistant to VIABLE JUSTIFIABLE CHANGE, because she stood her ground,
Shelley is FAR stronger from my perspective than 99% of those shielded by the porn industry – and as a reward, God has blessed the pornographic industry with Senator Isadore Hall III – a man who CLEARLY SAW that there was legitimacy, honesty and truth to Shelley Lubben’s research, work and words
I don’t believe nowadays that all the parties involved with the initial attacks on Shelley knew exactly what they were doing. I remember when it began and who was involved. Many people recruited to attack Shelley were blatantly LIED to by those with foul motive. Fortunately, I think that in a round about way, the attacks may have helped Shelley evolve into a far stronger crusader to deliver the TRUTH about the organized crime element that I hope REAL porn industry professionals sometime soon cast out of their professional sphere, so that the industry can become a legitimate entity.
I don’t agree 100% with Shelley (as I doubt she agrees with me), however I do feel she TRIES – much more than most. Shelley Lubben is HUMAN – therefor not perfect. I don’t like that her primary stalker has made efforts to link her to alleged pedophile Donny Pauling because I don’t believe she knew AT ALL about his activity. In fact, I’m willing to bet that there were several WITHIN the pornographic industry who knew of his propensity for pedophilia (while he was an active pornographer) yet turned a blind eye and SAID NOTHING.
Keep moving forward Shelley Lubben – retain your position as a beacon of hope and a VOICE of that delivers the HARSH TRUTH of the slave system that is a REALITY (yet rarely acknowledged) attached to the pornographic industry. Thank you Shelley for helping me in the way that I needed to be helped.
In conclusion – I want to add that Shelley has MANY supporters within the pornographic industry and on the fringes – few state publicly that they support her for fear of being attacked by the likes of FSC affiliated stalkers, but they do positively herald her efforts and work.
Pornstars – if you want to return to non-adult industry life – Shelley Lubben is a good guide. Depending on the level of help you need, I believe she will do her best to provide it. Keep in mind, she’s a multitasking 24/7 as an activist, wife & most importantly a mother of beautiful young women she’s been given a vision by God to do her best to save from the past she escaped from.
Vivid, Kayden kross and Logan Pierce lose appeal.
Heres the decision:
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT
VIVID ENTERTAINMENT, LLC;
CALIFA PRODUCTIONS, INC.;
KAYDEN KROSS; and LOGAN PIERCE,
JONATHAN FIELDING, Director of
Los Angeles County Department of
Public Health; JACKIE LACEY, Los
Angeles County District Attorney;
and COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES,
MICHAEL WEINSTEIN; ARLETTE DE
LA CRUZ; WHITNEY ENGERAN;
MARK MCGRATH; MARIJANE
JACKSON; and THE CAMPAIGN
COMMITTEE YES ON MEASURE B,
Appeal from the United States District Court
for the Central District of California
Dean D. Pregerson, District Judge, Presiding
Argued and Submitted
March 3, 2014—Pasadena, California
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT 2 V. FIELDING
Filed December 15, 2014
Before: Alex Kozinski and Susan P. Graber, Circuit
Judges, and Jack Zouhary,* District Judge.
Opinion by Judge Graber
The panel affirmed the district court’s order denying, in part, plaintiffs’ motion to enjoin the voter-initiated County of Los Angeles Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act
(commonly known as Measure B), which imposes a permitting system and additional production obligations on the makers of adult films, including a requirement that performers wear condoms in certain contexts.
Plaintiffs alleged that Measure B’s permitting scheme and its condom requirement operate as prior restraints on plaintiffs’ ability to create expression, in the form of adult films, which is protected by the First Amendment. In granting partial preliminary injunctive relief, the district court severed one chapter of Measure B in its entirety and severed
* The Honorable Jack Zouhary, United States District Judge for the
Northern District of Ohio, sitting by designation.
** This summary constitutes no part of the opinion of the court. It has been prepared by court staff for the convenience of the reader.
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT V. FIELDING 3
portions of three other chapters. Plaintiffs appealed thedistrict court’s decision not to enjoin Measure B in full. The panel held that it had jurisdiction over the appeal whether or not the intervenors-defendants demonstrated Article III standing because plaintiffs had standing, and they alone invoked the federal court’s jurisdiction.
The panel held that the district court did not abuse its discretion in holding that the invalid portions of Measure B (allowing for modification, suspension, and revocation of permits; authorizing administrative searches; and allowing discretion in setting fees) were severable.
The panel held that the district court did not abuse its discretion in declining to enjoin the enforcement of Measure B’s condom mandate. The panel concluded that the condom mandate survived intermediate scrutiny because it was only a de minimis effect on expression, was narrowly tailored to achieve the substantial governmental interest of reducing the rate of sexually transmitted infections, and left open adequate alternative means of expression.
The panel further held that Measure B’s requirements that adult film producers complete training about blood-borne pathogens and post a permit during shooting served the County’s interest in preventing sexually transmitted infections.
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT 4 V. FIELDING
Robert Corn-Revere (argued) and Ronald G. London, Davis
Wright Tremaine, LLP, Washington, D.C.; Janet L. Grumer
and Matthew D. Peterson, Davis Wright Tremaine LLP, Los
Angeles, California; Paul J. Cambria, Lipsitz Green Scime
Cambria LLP, Buffalo, New York; and H. Louis Sirkin,
Santen & Hughes LPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, for Plaintiffs-
Thomas R. Freeman (argued) and Mitchell A. Kamin,
Bird, Marella, Boxer, Wolpert, Nessim, Drooks & Licenberg,
P.C., Los Angeles, California; and Tom Myers, Laura
Boudreau, Samantha R. Azulay, and Christina Yang, AIDS
Healthcare Foundation, Los Angeles, California, for
No appearance for Defendants-Appellees.
GRABER, Circuit Judge:
Plaintiffs Vivid Entertainment, LLC; Califa Productions,
Inc.; Kayden Kross; and Logan Pierce are organizations and
individuals who make adult films in Los Angeles County.
The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, whose
director is a defendant here, sent Plaintiffs a letter stating its
intention to enforce the voter-initiated County of Los Angeles
Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act (2012) (commonly
known as Measure B) (codified at Los Angeles County, Cal.,
Code tit. 11, div. 1, ch. 11.39, and amending tit. 22, div. 1, ch.
22.56.1925). Measure B imposes a permitting system and
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT V. FIELDING 5
additional production obligations on the makers of adult films, including a requirement that performers wear condoms in certain contexts. Plaintiffs sued for declaratory and injunctive relief, arguing that Measure B burdens their freedom of expression in violation of the First Amendment. Defendant Los Angeles County answered that, although it would enforce the ordinance unless ordered by a court not to, it did not intend to defend Measure B because it took a “position of neutrality” with respect to the ordinance’s constitutionality. The official proponents of Measure B intervened to defend it.
The district court issued a preliminary injunction forbidding Defendants from enforcing Measure B’s feesetting provision, which gave Defendants discretion to set fees for permits; a provision that allowed warrantless searches by county health officers of any location suspected of producing adult films; and the broad permit modification, suspension, and revocation process. The court denied preliminary injunctive relief, though, for much of the ordinance, including its condom and permitting requirements. Plaintiffs appeal the district court’s decision not to enjoin Measure B in full.1 We affirm.
FACTUAL AND PROCEDURAL HISTORY
The citizens of Los Angeles County enacted Measure B in November 2012 by means of the initiative process; it became law on December 14, 2012. The text of the ordinance declared that it was passed in response to documentation by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health of the widespread transmission of sexually 1 No one challenges the partial grant of preliminary injunctive relief.
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT 6 V. FIELDING
transmitted infections among workers in the adult film industry. Under Measure B, producers of adult films2 must obtain a newly designated “public health permit” before shooting an adult film in Los Angeles County. Under Measure B as enacted, to obtain such a permit, producers of adult films must pay a fee, provide the Department with proof that certain employees have completed a county-approved training program concerning blood-borne pathogens, display the permit while filming, post a notice at the film site that the use of condoms is required, report to the Department any changes in the permitted business, and comply with all applicable laws, including title 8, section 5193 of the California Code of Regulations. Measure B 11.39.080, .090, .100, .110. Section 5193 mandates barrier protection for all employees who are exposed to blood-borne pathogens, which Measure B interprets to require condoms for performers who engage in vaginal or anal intercourse. Id. 11.39.090. Measure B also provides that a public health permit may be suspended or revoked, and fines or criminal penalties imposed, for failure to comply with all permitting requirements. Id. 11.39.110. A producer who faces modification, suspension, or revocation of a permit may apply for an undefined form of “administrative review.” Id. 11.39.110(C).
In addition to providing for monetary and criminal penalties, Measure B allows enforcement of the permitting requirements through a surprise inspection by a Los Angeles 2 Measure B defines “producer of adult film” as “any person or entity that produces, finances, or directs, adult films for commercial purposes.” Measure B, § 4, pt. 11.39.075 (all citations herein are to parts of section 4 unless otherwise noted).
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT V. FIELDING 7
County health officer at “any location suspected of conducting any activity regulated by this chapter.” Id. 11.39.130. “[F]or purposes of enforcing this chapter,” the health officer “may issue notices and impose fines therein and take possession of any sample, photograph, record or other evidence, including any documents bearing upon adult film producer’s compliance with the provision of the chapter.” Id. Measure B authorizes the district attorney to bring a civil enforcement action for injunctive relief against any producer who fails to cooperate with the health officer. Id. 11.39.140. On the day that Measure B took effect, Defendant Department of Public Health mailed Plaintiffs a letter notifying them of the new ordinance and stating that it had established provisional permitting fees of $2,000 to $2,500 per year. Plaintiffs then filed this action challenging Measure B as facially unconstitutional under the First Amendment.3 Plaintiffs allege that Measure B’s permitting scheme and its condom requirement operate as prior restraints on Plaintiffs’ ability to create expression, in the form of adult films, which is protected by the First Amendment.
Over Plaintiffs’ objection, the district court allowed supporters of Measure B to intervene. Following the Supreme Court’s decision in Hollingsworth v. Perry, 133 S. Ct. 2652 (2013), Plaintiffs asked the court to reconsider because, they argued, Intervenors lacked Article III standing. The district court denied the motion to reconsider. The district court granted in part and denied in part Intervenors’ motion to dismiss, and granted in part and denied 3 Plaintiffs raised other theories as well, but they are not at issue in this appeal.
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT 8 V. FIELDING
in part Plaintiffs’ request for a preliminary injunction. In
granting preliminary injunctive relief, the district court
severed one chapter of Measure B in its entirety and severed
portions of three other chapters. Appendix A contains
Measure B and shows the parts that the district court enjoined
Plaintiffs timely appeal the denial of complete
preliminary injunctive relief.4 They argue that the enjoined
provisions are not properly severable, so the likely invalidity
of some parts of the ordinance requires enjoining the entire
ordinance. In the alternative, Plaintiffs argue that the district
court erred in denying preliminary injunctive relief with
respect to Measure B’s requirements that producers:
(1) acquire a permit before beginning production on an adult
film; (2) demonstrate that employees have completed a
county-approved training program concerning blood-borne
pathogens as a condition precedent to issuance of the permit;
and (3) require performers to use condoms “during any acts
of vaginal or anal sexual intercourse.”
STANDARD OF REVIEW
We review for abuse of discretion denial of a preliminary
injunction. Alliance for the Wild Rockies v. Cottrell, 632 F.3d
1127, 1131 (9th Cir. 2011). “As long as the district court got
the law right, it will not be reversed simply because we would
have arrived at a different result if we had applied the law to
the facts of the case.” A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.,
284 F.3d 1091, 1096 (9th Cir. 2002) (internal quotation marks
and brackets omitted). A district court abuses its discretion,
however, if it applies an incorrect legal standard. Does 1–5
4 We have jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1292(a)(1).
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT V. FIELDING 9
v. Chandler, 83 F.3d 1150, 1152 (9th Cir. 1996).
Accordingly, we review de novo the “legal premises
underlying a preliminary injunction.” A&M Records,
284 F.3d at 1096.
Citing Perry, Plaintiffs argue that we lack jurisdiction
over this appeal, because Intervenors lack Article III standing.
We disagree with their reading of Perry and with their
contention that Intervenors must have standing for this appeal
The Supreme Court has held that a party must have
Article III standing both to initiate an action and to seek
review on appeal. Arizonans for Official English v. Arizona,
520 U.S. 43, 64 (1997). But an intervenor who performs
neither of those functions and no other function that invokes
the power of the federal courts need not meet Article III
standing requirements. Yniguez v. Arizona, 939 F.2d 727,
731 (9th Cir. 1991), vacated by Arizonans for Official
English, 520 U.S. at 80, as recognized in League of United
Latin Am. Citizens v. Wilson, 131 F.3d 1297, 1305 n.5 (9th
Cir. 1997); see also Perry, 133 S. Ct. at 2661 (citing Art. III,
§ 2) (holding that “any person invoking the power of a federal
court must demonstrate standing to do so” (emphasis added)).
Nothing in Perry, which concerned the question whether an
intervenor who sought to appeal had Article III standing,
affects that conclusion. Plaintiffs have standing, and it is they
alone who have invoked the federal courts’ jurisdiction. For
that reason, we need not and do not decide whether
Intervenors satisfy the requirements of Article III standing.
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT 10 V. FIELDING
To the extent that Plaintiffs contend that the district court
erred in granting intervention, we cannot consider their
challenge. An order allowing intervention under Federal
Rule of Civil Procedure 24(a) is not a final order and is not an
interlocutory order appealable by statute, so an appeal on that
issue is premature until entry of final judgment. Alsea Valley
Alliance v. Dep’t of Commerce, 358 F.3d 1181, 1187 (9th Cir.
Plaintiffs next urge that, having held that they are likely
to succeed on the merits with respect to some provisions of
Measure B, the district court had to enjoin operation of the
entire ordinance whether or not the remainder independently
satisfies the standards for injunctive relief. For the reasons
that follow, we disagree.
Federal courts should avoid “judicial legislation”—that is,
amending, rather than construing, statutory text—out of
respect for the separation-of-powers principle that only
legislatures ought to make positive law. United States v.
Nat’l Treasury Emps. Union, 513 U.S. 454, 479 (1995). But,
because of countervailing separation-of-powers principles,
courts must respect the laws made by legislatures and,
therefore, should avoid nullifying an entire statute when only
a portion is invalid. Brockett v. Spokane Arcades, Inc.,
472 U.S. 491, 502 (1985). These concerns have led to the
judicial doctrine of severability, that is, the “elementary
principle that the same statute may be in part constitutional
and in part unconstitutional, and that if the parts are wholly
independent of each other, that which is constitutional may
stand while that which is unconstitutional will be rejected.”
Id. (internal quotation marks omitted). The need for
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT V. FIELDING 11
deference and restraint in severing a state or local enactment
is all the more acute because of our respect for federalism and
local control. See City of Lakewood v. Plain Dealer Publ’g
Co., 486 U.S. 750, 772 (1988).
Because a court may not use severability as a fig leaf for
judicial legislation, courts have fashioned limits on when a
statute may be severed. See Yu Cong Eng v. Trinidad,
271 U.S. 500, 518 (1926) (“[I]t is very clear that amendment
may not be substituted for construction, and that a court may
not exercise legislative functions to save the law from conflict
with constitutional limitation.”). In keeping with federalism
principles, the “[s]everability of a local ordinance is a
question of state law.” City of Lakewood, 486 U.S. at 772.
California law directs courts to consider first the inclusion
of a severability clause in the legislation. Cal. Redev. Ass’n
v. Matosantos, 267 P.3d 580, 607 (Cal. 2011). “The presence
of such a clause establishes a presumption in favor of
severance.” Id. “Although not conclusive, a severability
clause normally calls for sustaining the valid part of the
enactment . . . .” Santa Barbara Sch. Dist. v. Superior Court,
530 P.2d 605, 618 (Cal. 1975) (internal quotation marks
Measure B contains this severability clause:
If any provision of this Act, or part
thereof, is for any reason held to be invalid or
unconstitutional, the remaining provisions
shall not be affected, but shall remain in full
force and effect, and to this end the provisions
of the Act are severable.
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT 12 V. FIELDING
Measure B § 8. Section 8 states clearly that the people, acting
in their legislative capacity, intended any provision and any
part of a provision, if invalid or unconstitutional, to be
severed from the ordinance. The district court thus properly
held that Measure B’s severability clause establishes a
presumption of severability.
Next, California law directs courts to “consider three
additional criteria: The invalid provision must be
grammatically, functionally, and volitionally separable.” Cal.
Redev. Ass’n, 267 P.3d at 607 (internal quotation marks and
brackets omitted). We will consider each criterion in turn.
“Grammatical separability, also known as mechanical
separability, depends on whether the invalid parts can be
removed as a whole without affecting the wording or
coherence of what remains.” Id. (internal quotation marks
omitted). “[T]he ‘grammatical’ component of the test for
severance is met by the severability clause considered in
conjunction with the separate and discrete provisions of [the
statute].” Barlow v. Davis, 85 Cal. Rptr. 2d 752, 757 (Ct.
App. 1999). “To be grammatically separable, the valid and
invalid parts of the statute can be separated by paragraph,
sentence, clause, phrase, or even single words.” People v.
Nguyen, 166 Cal. Rptr. 3d 590, 609 (Ct. App. 2014) (internal
quotation marks omitted). “[Where] the defect cannot be
cured by excising any word or group of words, the problem
is quite different and more difficult of solution.” Ex parte
Blaney, 184 P.2d 892, 900 (Cal. 1947); Santa Barbara Sch.
Dist., 530 P.2d at 617.
Here, Plaintiffs contend that the district court abused its
discretion by striking individual words and groups of words
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT V. FIELDING 13
from the definition of an adult film. Specifically, the district
court struck part of 11.39.010 of Measure B as follows:
An “adult film” is defined as any film,
video, multimedia or other representation of
sexual intercourse in which performers
actually engage in oral, vaginal, or anal
penetration, including, but not limited to,
penetration by a penis, finger, or inanimate
object; oral contact with the anus or genitals
of another performer; and/or any other sexual
activity that may result in the transmission of
blood and/or any other potentially infectious
In large part, as can be seen, the district court severed
distinct clauses. The district court also severed some
individual words but, grammatically, they are understood by
the reader to include complete clauses. For example, the
compound clause “engage in oral, vaginal, or anal
penetration” means—and easily could have been drafted to
say—“engage in oral penetration, engage in vaginal
penetration, or engage in anal penetration.” For that reason,
the district court did, in fact, sever only distinct provisions
from Measure B, and that severance did not alter the meaning
of the remaining text in any way. California courts have long
held that parts of a compound clause are grammatically
severable from a statute if their omission would not affect the
meaning of the remaining text. Ex parte Blaney, 184 P.2d at
900; Santa Barbara Sch. Dist., 530 P.2d at 617; see also
Legislature v. Eu, 816 P.2d 1309, 1335–36 (Cal. 1991)
(holding as grammatically severable “or serving in” from
“elected to or serving in the Legislature on or after November
1, 1990”); Borikas v. Alameda Unified Sch. Dist., 154 Cal.
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT 14 V. FIELDING
Rptr. 3d 186, 212 (Ct. App. 2013) (holding as grammatically
severable “residential” from “[o]n each taxable, residential
parcel at the rate of $120 per year”); City of Dublin v. County
of Alameda, 17 Cal. Rptr. 2d 845, 850–51 (Ct. App. 1993)
(holding as grammatically severable “incorporated and” from
“the geographic entity, including both the incorporated and
unincorporated areas”). In short, the district court
permissibly held that the disputed portions of Measure B are
Our next consideration, functional severability, “depends
on whether the remainder [of the statute] is complete in
5 Plaintiffs rely on Acosta v. City of Costa Mesa, 718 F.3d 800, 820–21
(9th Cir. 2013) (per curiam), for the broad principle that a court
necessarily abuses its discretion if it holds that a single word or group of
words is grammatically severable under California law. Acosta is
distinguishable, and we decline to extend it in a way that would contradict
governing California law.
In Acosta, the severability clause itself was narrow, providing that
only “sections, paragraphs, clauses and phrases” were severable from the
ordinance in question. Id. at 820. We interpreted that particularized list
to prohibit, by inference, the severance of “individual words.” Id. As
directed by California law, we read that narrow severability clause “‘in
conjunction with the separate and discrete provisions of’ the text to
determine whether the ‘grammatical component of the test for severance
is met.’” Id. (quoting Barlow, 85 Cal. Rptr. 2d at 757). Reading the text
and severance clause together, we held that the single adjective “insolent”
and the list of adjectives “personal, impertinent, profane, insolent” were
not grammatically severable from the ordinance because, in context, the
words did not express a single “legislative thought.” Id. at 820–21.
Here, by contrast, Measure B contains a broad severability clause that
does not prohibit the severance of individual words. Under Measure B,
any provision or part of any provision shall be severed. Moreover, as
noted, the challenged severance in this case involves discrete legislative
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT V. FIELDING 15
itself.” Santa Barbara Sch. Dist., 530 P.2d at 618 (internal
quotation marks omitted). To be functionally severable,
“[t]he remaining provisions must stand on their own, unaided
by the invalid provisions nor rendered vague by their absence
nor inextricably connected to them by policy considerations.
They must be capable of separate enforcement.” People’s
Advocate, Inc. v. Superior Court, 226 Cal. Rptr. 640, 649 (Ct.
App. 1986). Here, the district court enjoined the provisions
of Measure B that allowed for modification, suspension, and
revocation of permits; that authorized administrative
searches; and that allowed discretion in setting fees. The rest
of the ordinance remains intact: the permitting scheme, with
its condom and educational requirements; and enforcement
through fines and criminal charges. In addition, as the district
court noted, even in the absence of the administrative search
provision, Defendants can obtain a warrant to enforce
Measure B. Because the remaining parts of Measure B
operate independently, are not rendered vague in the absence
of the invalid provisions, and are capable of separate
enforcement, the district court permissibly ruled that the
provisions are functionally severable.
Our final consideration, volitional severability, “depends
on whether the remainder [of the statute] is complete in itself
and would have been adopted by the legislative body had [it]
foreseen the partial invalidation of the statute.” Santa
Barbara Sch. Dist., 530 P.2d at 618 (internal quotation marks
omitted). With respect to ballot initiatives, the test for
volitional severability “is whether it can be said with
confidence that the electorate’s attention was sufficiently
focused upon the parts to be severed so that it would have
separately considered and adopted them in the absence of the
invalid portions.” Gerken v. Fair Political Practices
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Comm’n, 863 P.2d 694, 699 (Cal. 1993) (internal quotation
marks and emphasis omitted).
The district court preserved the requirements that
producers of adult films in Los Angeles County obtain
permits, train employees about the sexual transmission of
disease, and require performers to wear condoms when
engaged in vaginal or anal intercourse. The district court also
preserved the enforcement mechanisms of fines and criminal
penalties. As the court correctly noted, the “Findings and
Declaration” section of the initiative emphasizes (1) a
growing public concern over the spread of HIV/AIDS and
other sexually transmitted infections in the adult film
industry; (2) the importance of safe sex practices, and the use
of condoms in particular, in limiting the spread of HIV/AIDS
and other sexually transmitted infections; and (3) a failure to
enforce current state laws mandating the use of condoms by
performers in adult films. Measure B § 2. Thus, the
Declaration demonstrates that the public’s attention was
focused primarily on heightening enforcement of the condom
requirement. That is, even in the absence of the severed
segments, the remaining provisions centrally address the
voters’ stated concerns. The district court permissibly
concluded that the condom and permitting requirements are
volitionally severable from the fee-setting, inspections, and
Plaintiffs counter that the fee provisions are not
volitionally severable, because the voters would not have
passed Measure B as an “unfunded mandate.” But the
Declaration contained in Measure B says nothing about
money or revenue neutrality. Rather, the text demonstrates
that the core purpose of the initiative “was presented to the
electorate as a distinct aim, separate and apart from the
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VIVID ENTERTAINMENT V. FIELDING 17
measure’s funding mandate.” McMahan v. City of San
Francisco, 26 Cal. Rptr. 3d 509, 513 (Ct. App. 2005)
(holding that a funding provision was volitionally severable
from the primary regulatory scheme).
In sum, the district court did not abuse its discretion in
granting preliminary injunctive relief with respect to only
certain parts of Measure B, while allowing enforcement of
other provisions as severable. We now turn to Plaintiffs’
assertion that, even if severance is permissible, the district
court erred in denying preliminary injunctive relief with
respect to additional parts of the ordinance: the condom
mandate and the permitting requirement.
C. Denial of Preliminary Injunctive Relief
In deciding whether a preliminary injunction should issue,
a district court must consider four factors: (1) whether the
plaintiff has shown a likelihood of success on the merits; (2)
whether the plaintiff has shown a likelihood of irreparable
harm in the absence of preliminary relief; (3) whether the
balance of equities tips in the plaintiff’s favor; and
(4) whether preliminary relief is in the public interest. Winter
v. Natural Res. Def. Council, Inc., 555 U.S. 7, 20 (2008).
Courts asked to issue preliminary
injunctions based on First Amendment
grounds face an inherent tension: the moving
party bears the burden of showing likely
success on the merits . . . and yet within that
merits determination the government bears the
burden of justifying its speech-restrictive
law. . . .
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. . . .
Therefore, in the First Amendment
context, the moving party bears the initial
burden of making a colorable claim that its
First Amendment rights have been infringed,
. . . at which point the burden shifts to the
government to justify the restriction.
Thalheimer v. City of San Diego, 645 F.3d 1109, 1115–16
(9th Cir. 2011). But even if the plaintiff demonstrates likely success on the merits, the plaintiff still must demonstrate irreparable injury, a favorable balance of equities, and the tipping of the public interest in favor of an injunction. Id. at 1128. That is, although a First Amendment claim “certainly raises the specter” of irreparable harm and public interest considerations, proving the likelihood of such a claim is not enough to satisfy Winter. Stormans, [Inc. v. Selecky, 586 F.3d 1109,] 1138 [(9th Cir. 2009)]; see also Klein v. City of San Clemente, 584 F.3d 1196, 1207 (9th Cir. 2009) (even where the plaintiff was likely to succeed on the merits of his First Amendment claim, he “must also demonstrate that he is likely to suffer irreparable injury in the absence of a preliminary injunction, and that the balance of equities and the public interest tip in his favor”) (citing Winter, 555 U.S. at 20).
DISH Network Corp. v. FCC, 653 F.3d 771, 776 (9th Cir.
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1. Condom Mandate
The district court held that Plaintiffs are unlikely to succeed on the merits of their First Amendment challenge to the condom requirement. The court did not abuse its discretion in declining to enjoin the enforcement of the condom mandate. The condom mandate survives intermediate scrutiny because it has only a de minimis effect on expression, is narrowly tailored to achieve the substantial governmental interest of reducing the rate of sexually transmitted infections, and leaves open adequate alternative means of expression.
As a threshold matter, Plaintiffs argue that the district court applied the wrong standard—intermediate scrutiny— and that the condom mandate should be subject to strict scrutiny. We disagree.
The Supreme Court has recognized that nearly all regulation of the adult entertainment industry is content based. See City of Los Angeles v. Alameda Books, Inc., 535 U.S. 425, 448 (2002) (Kennedy, J., concurring in the judgment). Content-based regulation of speech generally receives strict scrutiny, but we have fashioned an exception, grounded in Alameda Books, that applies intermediate scrutiny if two conditions are met. Ctr. for Fair Pub. Policy v. Maricopa County, 336 F.3d 1153, 1161, 1164–65 (9th Cir. 2003) (citing Alameda Books, 535 U.S. at 434) (recognizing Justice Kennedy’s concurrence as controlling). First, the ordinance must regulate “speech that is sexual or pornographic in nature.” Gammoh v. City of La Habra, 395 F.3d 1114, 1123, amended on denial of reh’g, 402 F.3d 875 (9th Cir. 2005). Second, “the primary motivation behind the regulation [must be] to prevent secondary effects.” Id.
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But even if those two conditions are met, strict scrutiny may still apply if the regulation amounts to a complete ban on expression. Dream Palace v. County of Maricopa, 384 F.3d 990, 1021 (9th Cir. 2004).
We assume, but need not and do not decide, that Measure B’s condom mandate is a content-based regulation of speech. Nonetheless, Measure B regulates sexual speech in order to prevent the secondary effects of sexually transmitted infections, thus falling within the Alameda Books exception. Plaintiffs argue that, despite that exception, the district court should have applied strict scrutiny because the condom mandate amounts to a complete ban on their protected expression.
As an initial matter, Plaintiffs’ argument presupposes that their relevant expression for First Amendment purposes is the depiction of condomless sex. But “simply to define what is being banned as the ‘message’ is to assume the conclusion.” City of Erie v. Pap’s A.M., 529 U.S. 277, 293 (2000). In Pap’s A.M., a plurality of the Supreme Court concluded that a general ban on public nudity, which required erotic dancers to wear at least pasties and a G-string while dancing, did not violate the First Amendment. Id. at 302. In reaching that conclusion, the opinion rejected the argument that the pastiesand- G-string requirement functioned as a complete ban on the dancers’ expression of “nude dancing.” Id. at 292–93. Instead, the opinion defined the relevant expression more broadly as “the dancer’s erotic message.” Id. at 301. We undertook a similar analysis, albeit without reference to Pap’s A.M., in Gammoh, in which we upheld an ordinance that required dancers to stay at least two feet away from patrons during their performances. 395 F.3d at 1123. The plaintiffs there argued that the ordinance completely banned their Case: 13-56445, 12/15/2014, ID: 9348589, DktEntry: 57-1, Page 20 of 40
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expression, which they defined as “proximate dancing.” Id. In response, we stressed that “the ‘expression’ at issue could always be defined to include the contested restriction,” but “virtually no ordinance would survive this analysis.” Id. We instead defined the relevant expression as “the dancer’s erotic message” and upheld the ordinance. Id. at 1128.
In light of those cases, we must examine more carefully whether Plaintiffs’ relevant expression is the depiction of condomless sex. Plaintiffs submitted declarations stating that condomless sex differs from sex generally because condoms remind the audience about real-world concerns such as pregnancy and disease. Under this view, films depicting condomless sex convey a particular message about sex in a world without those risks. The Supreme Court has cautioned, however, that “‘[i]t is possible to find some kernel of expression in almost every activity a person undertakes—for example, walking down the street or meeting one’s friends at a shopping mall—but such a kernel is not sufficient to bring the activity within the protection of the First Amendment.’” Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc., 501 U.S. 560, 570 (1991) (quoting City of Dallas v. Stanglin, 490 U.S. 19, 25 (1989)). To determine whether conduct is protected by the First Amendment, we ask not only whether someone intended to convey a particular message through that conduct, but also whether there is a “great” likelihood “that the message would be understood by those who viewed it.” Spence v. Washington, 418 U.S. 405, 410–11 (1974) (per curiam). Here, we agree with the district court that, whatever unique message Plaintiffs might intend to convey by depicting condomless sex, it is unlikely that viewers of adult films will understand that message. So condomless sex is not the Case: 13-56445, 12/15/2014, ID: 9348589, DktEntry: 57-1, Page 21 of 40
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relevant expression for First Amendment purposes;6 instead, the relevant expression is more generally the adult films’ erotic message. See Pap’s A.M., 529 U.S. at 293; Gammoh,
395 F.3d at 1123.
With Plaintiffs’ expression so defined, we conclude that strict scrutiny is inappropriate because the condom mandate does not ban the relevant expression completely. Rather, it imposes a de minimis restriction. In Pap’s A.M., the Supreme Court held that the pasties-and-G-string requirement did not violate the First Amendment because, even if the ban “has some minimal effect on the erotic message by muting that portion of the expression that occurs when the last stitch is dropped,” that effect was de minimis. 529 U.S. at 294 (emphasis added). That was so even though the ban “certainly ha[d] the effect of limiting one particular means of expressing the kind of erotic message being disseminated.” Id. at 292–93; see also Barnes, 501 U.S. at 571 (noting that a requirement that erotic dancers wear pasties and G-strings “does not deprive the dance of whatever erotic message it conveys; it simply makes the message slightly less graphic”). 6 We also note that even if the relevant expression were the depiction of condomless sex, Measure B still might warrant intermediate scrutiny. On its face, Measure B does not ban expression; it does not prohibit the depiction of condomless sex, but rather limits only the way the film is produced. In that way, Measure B’s condom mandate is akin to the twofoot required distance between exotic dancers and patrons that we upheld in Gammoh, which did not “ban any form of dance” or address the content of the dance. 395 F.3d at 1123. When the district court adjudicates the First Amendment claim on the merits, if the court were to find that special effects could be used to edit condoms out of adult films, that would provide yet another reason to apply intermediate scrutiny.
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Many of our sister circuits have relied on Pap’s A.M. in upholding de minimis restrictions on speech using intermediate scrutiny. See, e.g., Sensations, Inc. v. City of Grand Rapids, 526 F.3d 291, 299 (6th Cir. 2008) (upholding a nudity ban under intermediate scrutiny because Pap’s A.M. and Barnes had characterized a similar regulation as de minimis); Fantasy Ranch Inc. v. City of Arlington, 459 F.3d 546, 562 (5th Cir. 2006) (rejecting an argument that an ordinance requiring a certain distance between dancers and the audience enacted a “complete ban on proximate nude dancing”); Heideman v. S. Salt Lake City, 348 F.3d 1182, 1195–96 (10th Cir. 2003) (applying Pap’s A.M. to conclude that a ban on nude erotic dancing was not a “total ban” on speech). And, as noted, we followed this same analytical approach in Gammoh, 395 F.3d at 1122–23.
A similar analysis applies to the condom mandate. The requirement that actors in adult films wear condoms while engaging in sexual intercourse might have “some minimal effect” on a film’s erotic message, but that effect is certainly no greater than the effect of pasties and G-strings on the erotic message of nude dancing. In light of Pap’s A.M. and the other precedent cited above, we conclude that the restriction on expression in this case is de minimis. And a de minimis restriction on expression is, by definition, not a complete ban on expression, and so does not trigger strict scrutiny. Accordingly, the mandate is subject to intermediate scrutiny.
The district court properly exercised its discretion in concluding that the condom requirement likely would survive intermediate scrutiny. “A statute will survive intermediate scrutiny if it: (1) is designed to serve a substantial government interest; (2) is narrowly tailored to serve that
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interest; and (3) does not unreasonably limit alternative avenues of communication.” Gammoh, 395 F.3d at 1125–26, as amended on denial of reh’g, 402 F.3d at 876.
The purpose of Measure B is twofold: (1) to decrease the spread of sexually transmitted infections among performers within the adult film industry, (2) thereby stemming the transmission of sexually transmitted infections to the general population among whom the performers dwell. Plaintiffs do not contest that the government has a substantial interest in preventing certain secondary effects of the adult film industry, including the spread of sexually transmitted infections. See Rubin v. Coors Brewing Co., 514 U.S. 476, 485 (1995) (stating that “the Government . . . has a significant interest in protecting the health, safety, and welfare of its citizens”); Ctr. for Fair Pub. Policy, 336 F.3d at 1166 (“It is beyond peradventure at this point in the development of the doctrine that a state’s interest in curbing the secondary effects associated with adult entertainment establishments is substantial.”). Rather, Plaintiffs contend that Measure B’s condom mandate is not narrowly tailored to serve the government’s interest.
In order to be narrowly tailored for purposes of intermediate scrutiny, the regulation “‘need not be the least restrictive or the least intrusive means’ available to achieve the government’s legitimate interests.” Berger v. City of Seattle, 569 F.3d 1029, 1041 (9th Cir. 2009) (en banc) (quoting Ward v. Rock Against Racism, 491 U.S. 781, 798 (1989)). “Rather, the requirement of narrow tailoring is satisfied so long as the regulation promotes a substantial government interest that would be achieved less effectively absent the regulation.” Colacurcio v. City of Kent, 163 F.3d 545, 553 (9th Cir. 1998) (internal quotation marks and ellipsis
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omitted). This is not to say that narrow tailoring allows a regulation to burden more speech than is necessary to satisfy the interest, but we may not invalidate such a regulation “simply because there is some imaginable alternative that might be less burdensome on speech.” United States v.
Albertini, 472 U.S. 675, 689 (1985).
Plaintiffs’ narrow-tailoring argument rests largely on the proposition that Measure B duplicates a voluntary testing and monitoring scheme that already is in place in the industry. The adult film industry and its trade associations have established the Adult Protection Health & Safety Service, which has implemented a program whereby performers are tested, either monthly or more frequently, and the test results are made available in a database. In addition, if the Safety Service receives notification of a positive test result, it must inform the Department of Public Health. Adult film producers and performers have access to the database in order to verify that performers have been tested and that those tests have been negative. Certain employers require their performers, by contract, to submit to testing at various intervals. For example, Plaintiff Kross’ contract requires testing every 15 days, Plaintiff Pierce is tested every 14 days, and all of Plaintiff Vivid Entertainment’s performers are tested at least once every 28 days.
On the day of production, Plaintiff Vivid Entertainment requires each performer to provide identification, and each performer’s test history is drawn from the Safety Service database. Plaintiff Vivid Entertainment allows participation in the production only by performers with a current test status and a negative result. Plaintiffs Kross and Pierce declare that they undertake this screening process before every explicit scene in which they perform, and both Plaintiffs Kross and Case: 13-56445, 12/15/2014, ID: 9348589, DktEntry: 57-1, Page 25 of 40
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Pierce declare that they would not take part in an explicit scene if the screening measures were not in place. Plaintiffs also provided testimony from industry officials that this testing system is effective.
The district court considered Plaintiffs’ evidence and weighed it against contradictory evidence that the industry’s testing scheme is ineffective. In particular, the district court considered a 2009 letter from the County of Los Angeles Department of Public Health to support the conclusion that Measure B, passed in 2012, was designed to address the spread of disease and is narrowly tailored to that end.7 The Findings and Declaration section of Measure B refers specifically to documentation by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health of the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in the adult film industry. Measure B § 2.
In the 2009 letter, the Department of Public Health reported that its analysis of 2008 data showed a markedly higher rate of sexually transmitted infections for performers within the adult film industry, 20%, than for the general public, 2.4%, and even for the county area with the highest rate of infection, 4.5%. The Department of Public Health 7 The district court properly relied on the letter because it is referred to in Measure B itself. Moreover, the letter is “not subject to reasonable dispute” because it “can be accurately and readily determined from sources whose accuracy cannot reasonably be questioned.” Fed. R. Evid. 201(b); see Sachs v. Republic of Austria, 737 F.3d 584, 596 n.10 (9th Cir. 2013) (en banc) (taking notice of legislative facts necessary to discern legislative intent as directed by Rule 201(a), advisory note to 1972 amendments, but noting also that the court could properly notice such facts as adjudicative facts under Rule 201(b)), petition for cert. filed, 82 U.S.L.W. 3573 (U.S. Mar. 5, 2014) (No. 13-1067).
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also found that 20.2% of performers in adult films diagnosed with an infection were reinfected within one year. Further, the Department of Public Health opined that the data with respect to infection rates were likely underestimated, because rectal and oral screenings were not completed with regularity
among workers in the industry.
The district court weighed all the evidence before it and, finding the 2009 letter especially compelling, held that Plaintiffs were unlikely to succeed on the merits in their First Amendment challenge to the condom mandate. In so doing, the district court did not abuse its discretion.8
On appeal, Plaintiffs also argue that Measure B’s condommandate is not narrowly tailored, and is largely ineffective, because makers of adult films can produce films across county lines without having performers wear condoms. As an initial matter, it bears noting that Plaintiffs offered evidence before the district court that Measure B has drastically reduced the number of adult films produced by the industry because the productions, which depend heavily on the “regular” film industry’s infrastructure in Los Angeles County, cannot be moved elsewhere. That evidence undermines Plaintiffs’ new contention that Measure B is ineffective because of the adult film industry’s ready mobility.
8 That the condom mandate has a de minimis effect on expression also supports the conclusion that the ordinance is narrowly tailored. Cf. Sensations, Inc., 526 F.3d at 299 (citing Pap’s A.M. and Barnes in holding that a ban on public nudity was narrowly tailored to suppress negative secondary effects).
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But, more importantly, Plaintiffs’ argument overstates the standard for narrow tailoring, which simply requires that the regulation “promote a substantial government interest that would be achieved less effectively absent the regulation.” Colacurcio, 163 F.3d at 553. The regulation need not be the most effective way to achieve the government’s substantial interest, nor must it be shown that the regulation cannot be circumvented. Rather, it suffices if the regulation helps to achieve the substantial government interest effectively. Id. Finally, Plaintiffs contend that Measure B’s condom mandate unconstitutionally forecloses alternative channels of communication. As we noted in Gammoh, “[t]his inquiry is analogous” to our analysis of whether the condom mandate is a complete ban on expression. 395 F.3d at 1128. In Gammoh, we held that the required two-foot separation between dancers and patrons left open alternative channels of communication because the requirement “slightly impaired [the message],” but “the dancer’s erotic message [could] still be communicated from a slight distance.” Id. The same is true here. Measure B is a minimal restriction on Plaintiffs’ expression that “leaves ample capacity to convey [Plaintiffs’] erotic message.” Pap’s A.M., 529 U.S. at 301. Accordingly, the district court did not abuse its discretion in holding that the condom requirement leaves alternative channels of expression available.
2. Permitting System
The portions of Measure B’s permitting system left in place by the district court also survive constitutional
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scrutiny.9 Plaintiffs first argue that the remaining permitting requirements are impermissibly content based and therefore unconstitutional. But a licensing scheme that regulates adult entertainment is not unconstitutional simply because it is content based. See Dream Palace, 384 F.3d at 1001. Plaintiffs also argue “that the remnants of Measure B’s permitting regime left intact are [not] narrowly tailored.” See Forsyth County v. Nationalist Movement, 505 U.S. 123, 130 (1992) (holding that “any permit scheme . . . must be narrowly tailored”). As discussed above, narrow tailoring requires only that the remaining portions of the permitting scheme “promote a substantial government interest that would be achieved less effectively absent the regulation.” Colacurcio, 163 F.3d at 553 (internal quotation marks omitted). The permitting system’s requirements that adult film producers complete training about blood-borne pathogens and post a permit during shooting still serve the County’s interest in preventing sexually transmitted infections. That remains so even in light of the other portions of the permitting system that the district court enjoined. Finally, Plaintiffs argue that the permitting scheme grants county officials too much discretion, but the district court correctly concluded that the remaining permitting provisions leave little, if any, discretion to government officials. Accordingly, the district court did not abuse its discretion in 9 Plaintiffs also argue that the district court failed to conduct a narrow tailoring analysis with respect to the permitting provisions. We reject their procedural objection for two reasons. First, the district court analyzed the merits of this issue, albeit in the context of considering the motion to dismiss. Second, because Measure B’s condom mandate, which the district court analyzed at length with specific reference to narrow tailoring, is part of the permitting process, the court necessarily conducted a narrow tailoring analysis of the permitting scheme as part of its consideration of the condom mandate.
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denying preliminary injunctive relief with respect to Measure B’s remaining permitting requirements.
We have jurisdiction over this appeal whether or not Intervenors have demonstrated Article III standing. The district court did not abuse its discretion in holding that the invalid portions of Measure B are severable. Nor did the district court abuse its discretion in denying a preliminary injunction with respect to the condom and permitting provisions of Measure B.
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TTS expands North of the border!
December 15th, 2014
Talent Testing Service, Inc. (TTS) is happy to announce that it has reached an agreement with Clinique Médicale Millénia
in Montreal to become the first Associated Drawing Facility (ADF) in Canada. The clinic will collect and ship samples from their site to our headquarters in Miami as any other ADF in the United States. “We have received requests from Producers/Agents/Talents to open an ADF in Canada. After talking to various clinics in the area, we are excited to have Clinique Médicale Millénia in Montreal as part of our ADF network. Like in the United States, a customer can log into our website, pay for the testing and show up at Clinique Médicale Millénia for testing.” said Sixto Pacheco, President & CEO of TTS.
Clinique Médicale Millénia 150 Rue Sainte Catherine Ouest Montreal, Quebec H5B 1B2 Canada
Hours of operation:
Monday – Friday: 7:30AM – 3:30PM Results Availability:
– Collections Monday through Thursday: Next day around 6:00pm EST
– Collections on Friday: Next Monday around 6:00pm EST
– Expedited services are available
About Talent Testing Services, Inc. (TTS)
As the leader in setting testing standards for the industry, Talent Testing Service, Inc. (TTS) consistently offers talents safe, courteous, affordable and convenient testing through wholly owned subsidiaries or collaborating sites. Since 2007, TTS has provided the most advanced infectious molecular testing for the adult industry. TTS is a privately held company with headquarters in Miami, Florida and subsidiary offices in Los Angeles, CA and Las Vegas, NV.
https://www.talenttestingservice.com email@example.com Miami, FL (Headquarters) (305) 792 2090 / Los Angeles (818) 885 0812 Twitter: @talenttesting Facebook: facebook.com/talenttestingservice
[ I got this from Shelly Lubben and because i believe that we are far better off co-operating and because I dont see Pink Cross as a threat to the industry, certainly not like Pornhub I have decided to run this. I believe that if Pink Cross or anyone else provides an alternative for someone that doesn’t really want to be in the biz anyway then they are doing us a favor. We have plenty of talent that wants to be here….All of that said….”
WE WANT YOU! I know I know you’ve heard that a million times but seriously
WE WANT YOU to receive one of our Christmas boxes this year from Pink Cross.
We’re a group of ex porn stars and we really want to love on you this
Christmas. If you want a box from us please email firstname.lastname@example.org
or text me (Shelley) at 661-412-3881. We plan on being in the Valley this
week so we can deliver OR we can mail it to you. Everything is confidential.
And the box is filled with really fun stuff and goodies. Merry Christmas and we love you!
When you ask people in porn what the biggest problem is these days you will get one answer first: “piracy”. Whether you ask performers, agents, company owners, cameramen, make up artists or floor moppers, every single one of them will tell you they are losing money to piracy, and a lot of money at that.
When you say “piracy” unilaterally people associated tube sites, and the granddaddy of them all is Pornhub, so why would AVN lease booth space to pornhub during the Adult Expo Show? I wish I could tell you why AVN would do it but Theo has not returned my emails or calls on the matter, he simply doesn’t want to defend himself, probably because there is no defense.
When I asked around the sentiment seems to be that he had to, that this is all they proof anyone needs to see that Manwin/Mindgeek does indeed own AVN.
I was intending to attend Adult Expo this year, for the first time since 2007, but with this news they will not be getting my money or support,. I hope i am not alone in this.
I know others in the business refuse to do any business at all with Pornhub, one of whom is Derek Hay at L.A. Direct Models who had this to say to AVN: “It is disgraceful that Porn Hub one of the largest Tube sites that have caused so much harm to our industry, is permitted a booth to exhibit at AVN 2015″ Once again Theo nor Janet at AVN offered any response.
He goes on to ask the same questions that many others have:
“Why would we wish to support thieves ?
Why would AVN wish to do so ?”
Whether it does or not it has one.. Nexxxt Level Talent Agency is licensed, bonded and open for business. Jonathon Morgan and Andre Madness aren’t shooting enough to keep themselves busy so apparently they have decided to take a swing at being talent agents. They set themselves apart by not charging the producers a booking fee.
They dont say what they charge talent. They currently have two girls on their roster Kleio Valentien and Brandi Love.
The industry is starting to become more saturated with agents than with people shooting content but Jonathon and Andre seem to be well liked and the policy of not charging producers could work for them if they can sign up more talent. On the other hand if they are charging the talent more and can’t sign up quality talent they likely wont last very long. There is no mention if they belong to LATATA or not, they are not listed on Latata.org
Another difference is that the girls will not have to enter into lengthy contracts and “at any given time a girl can leave” according to Morgan. Though it was not specified if there was a “buy out” or anything.
Time will tell if they will make it or not. I wish them success.
Lady Antebellum’s Hillary Scott isn’t the only woman in the entertainment business with that name. It turns out there’s a porn star named Hillary Scott, and the Lady A singer found out about it though the porn star’s manager.
The country singer tells The Las Vegas Sun, “Her representation and management have contacted me about the domain name HillaryScott.com, which is mine and redirects you to Lady Antebellum. Her manager/representation, they wanted the domain name. You have to draw the line somewhere.”
The situation makes Hillary glad she’s part of a band and not a solo artist in the country format. “I’m embarrassed, too, when you Google my name because you don’t have to go too far to find her,” Hillary adds. “Tell people, ‘Don’t Google my name; Google Lady Antebellum!’”
I dunno about y’all but I think Hillary Scott the porn chick had every opportunity to get that URL before Lady Antebellum bought it. Since Hillary Scott is the Lady Antebellum singers real name it is doubtful that the porn chick, whose real name is different would win any domain dispute. It has nothing to do with the trademark, the porn chick may well own a trademark but that doesnt matter if smeones real name is Hillary Scott.
I told you back on Oct 22 that mindgeek/manwin was about to buy up a eurocompany, turns out that company was Reallyuseful ltd. ReallyUseful runs the sites FakeTaxi.com, MassageRooms.com, FakeAgent.com, Orgasms.xxx, Casting.xxx and Mom.xxx. and others.
now everyone and his brother ran the story last week just like manwin/mindgeek told them to in the press release. You are here because you want what ISN’T in the press release…..here ya go.
First I was off just a bit, manwin isn’t buying anything, Manwin is currently leveraged to the hilt so buying isn’t an option, they are taking over management in exchange for a small percentage of the revenue, cash that Manwin desperately needs.
The guy that owns ReallyUseful is JT. Here’s his deal JT gets 80% of the revenue from the sites, Manwin/MindGeek gets 20%… Because Manwin needs cash JT is the winner here….Manwin is trading its massive traffic for 20% of the revenue the traffic generates. the management contract has a term of two years with the option to renew.
If you look at MindGeek/Manwin sites you see that they are cross selling videosz via epoch/segpay. Thats because they have the same deal with videosz. Ditto Streamate.
There will be 3 or 4 more of these deals I am told….they will all follow the same model…no capital input from Manwin/MindGeek, options on either side.
Bottom Line is that MindGeek/Manwin is financially stretched and selling off internal shares would fuck up Feras Antoons control, probably Tassillos as well.
You won’t read THIS on AVN or XBiz…..
OK It’s been bandied about for ages but I now have the documents on AIMS Bankruptcy, ALL of them. Theres a ton of info in there so I am posting the filings on separate links
The AIM For Profit Filings are Here
The AIM Non Profit Filings are Here
As you can see when you peruse these, the source of AIMS bankruptcy had NOTHING to do with AHF or any lawsuits when you look at the debts of BOTH the monies owed to the testing labs is greater than everything else combined.
In the case of the for profit
Labcorp is owed 21,364.00
Labwest is owed 129,967.00
In The case of the non profit
Westcliff Labs is owed 465,651.00
Labwest is owed 47,276.00
Now here is what everyone and I mean EVERYONE should be asking themselves….Where did that money go? AIM collected the money the day the tests were done, all of it in cash, credit or debit cards. What did AIM actually DO with the money that was collected cuz they damn sure weren’t using it to pay the testing labs. Talent…APAC…that was YOUR money…maybe someone should ask the lying blowhard Ernest Greene, see what he has to say about that…..Or Mark kernes over at AVN, both of whom keep insisting that it was the legal fees generated by AHF. That is simply not true as you can see.
That actually brings up another interesting point…theres some legal fees and a lot of them are lawyers listed in both those filings for the same amount…How exactly does that happen Karen Tynan?
It’s also evident that AIM was pretty entangled with The FSC…Imagine that…I think they call a gathering of thieves a “cabal” as in The Free Speech Cabal…
I encourage you all to read over these documents…They are a real eye opener.